Cal NORML/MAPS Study
Cal NORML/MAPS Study Shows Vaporizer Can Drastically Reduce Toxins in herbal Smoke
toxins in herbal smoke can be effectively avoided by a vaporization device, according to a new study by California NORML
and MAPS (Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies) with support from a grant from the MPP
conducted by Chemic Labs in Canton, Mass., tested vapors from herbs heated in a vaporizer known as the Volcano® ( manufactured
by Storz & Bickel GmbH&Co. KG, Tuttlingen, Germany www.storz-bickel.com) and compared them to smoke produced by combusted herbs.
The Volcano® is designed to heat material to temperatures of 130° to 230° C (266° to 446° F) where medically active vapors
are produced, but below the threshold of combustion where smoke is formed.
The vapors from the Volcano® were found
to consist overwhelmingly of THC, the major active component in herbs, whereas the combusted smoke contained over 100 other
chemicals, including several polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), carcinogenic toxins that are common in tobacco smoke.
The respiratory hazards of herbs and tobacco smoke are due to toxic byproducts of combustion,
Previous studies have
found that vaporizers can reduce harmful toxins in herbal smoke. However this is the first study to analyze the gas phase
of the vapor for a wide range of toxins. A previous NORML/MAPS study conducted by Chemic Labs found that a vaporizer known
as the M-1 Volatizer® (www.volatizer.com) completely eliminated three specific toxins (naphthalene, benzene and toluene) in.
the solid phase of the vapor (D. Gieringer, A Promising Strategy for Smoke Harm Reduction. www.canorml.org/healthfacts/vaporizerstudy1.html).
new study used a gas chromatograph mass spectrometer (GCMS) to examine the gas components of the vapor. .The analysis showed
that the Volcano® vapor was remarkably clean, consisting 95% of THC with traces of cannabinol (CBN), another cannabinoid.
The remaining 5% consisted of small amounts of three other components: one suspected cannabinoid relative, one suspected PAH,
and caryophyllene, a fragrant oil in cannabis and other plants. In contrast over 111 different components appeared in the
gas of the combusted smoke, including a half dozen known PAHs. Non-cannabinoids accounted for as much as 88% of the total
gas content of the smoke.
A quantitative analysis found that the Volcano® delivered 46% of the THC into vapor following
three 45-second exposures of the sample to the heat. This compares favorably with the typical efficiency of herbal cigarettes
as observed in other studies, which depending on conditions can fall below 25% due to loss of THC in sidestream smoke. An
important feature of the Volcano® is that it uses a balloon to capture the vapor, thereby avoiding leakage to the air. It
is possible that higher THC efficiencies could have been reached with the Volcano® by stirring the sample around and exposing
it to more heat.
The combusted sample achieved a relatively high THC efficiency of 78% upon complete combustion. The
high efficiency seems due to the fact that the sample was completely consumed by combustion, and that smoke leakage was effectively
prevented by the laboratory setup.
Two other cannabinoids , cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabinol (CBN), were detected in the NIDA cannabis in trace
amounts of 0.1%. Both the Volcano® and combustion delivered an apparent increase in CBD and CBN, but the variance of the data
was too high to reach statistically significant conclusions.
Sponsors believe that the study results lend support for
wider use of vaporizers . NORML and MAPS are supporting efforts to have vaporizers approved by the FDA. As a first step
in this effort, Dr. Donald Abrams of the University of California, San Francisco, has submitted a grant proposal to do research
to test the Volcano® in human subjects. If the protocol is funded and the Volcano® approved by the FDA for human research,
it will be the first human study using a vaporizer. If the FDA requests additional laboratory data about the Volcano@, additional
funding may be necessary.